what is pain

Individuals feel pain when particular nerves named nociceptors detect problems and damage and transmit details about the damage along with the spinal cord to the brain. For instance, touching a hot surface might send a message through an arc flex in the spinal cord, leading to immediate muscle contraction.

This contraction might pull the hand away from the hot surface, restricting damage. The reflex takes place before the message reaches the brain. Once the pain message arrives, it leads an individual to feel an unpleasant pain or sensation.

Types of pain

There are two primary types of pain:

  • Chronic pain: it continues beyond the time expected for healing. The chronic pain lasts for longer than three months.
  • Acute pain: A normal response to a medical or injury condition. It starts quickly and is short-lived.

Pain might be anything from a sharp stab to a dull ache and may range from mild to severe. You might feel pain in one part of your body, or it can be widespread too.

Causes of pain

The common causes of pain in people are:

  • medical conditions such as arthritis, cancer, and back issues
  • injury 
  • surgery

How pain medicines work

Pain medicines operate in different ways. There are pain medicines that assist in decreasing fever and inflammation. They do this by stopping chemicals named prostaglandins. It leads to swelling and inflammation and makes nerve endings sensitive, which might lead to pain.

They also aid in protecting the stomach from stomach acid, and this is the reason why these medicines might lead to bleeding and irritation in a few individuals. Opioid medicines function differently. They change messages of pain in the pain, which is why these medicines will be addictive.

How pain affects the body

Pain is a tough protective mechanism. It is a necessary part of the change that protects the body from harm and danger. One nerve type depends on messages speedily, leading a sudden and sharp pain. The other relays lead to throbbing and dull pain and messages slowly.

Few body parts have more pain receptors than others. For instance, the skin has lots of receptors, so it is simple to tell the exact type of pain and location. There are fewer receptors present in the gut, so it is difficult to pinpoint the area of a stomach ache.

If pain receptors in the skin get activated by touching anything harmful, these nerves send signals to the spinal cord and afterwards to the brain part named the thalamus. At times the spinal cords send a quick signal back to the muscles to make them contract.

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